Radionuclides ~ Why Not?
Health Canada: Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document - Radiological Parameters
EPA: Basic Information about Radionuclides in
Health Canada: "Radiation-induced cancers are indistinguishable from those that occur from other causes. The correlation between radiation and cancer induction can be shown only in large populations of irradiated individuals as an increase of cancers over the background incidence.
"The absence of a threshold implies that there is no dose, however small, that may be considered absolutely safe."
The main sources of epidemiological information on radiation risks and effects have come from studies of individuals or groups who have had relatively high exposures, such as:
- atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki;
- patients who received high radiation doses for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes; and
- occupationally exposed workers, including uranium miners and radium dial painters.
Since it is impossible to establish with any certainty the shape of the dose-response relationship for stochastic effects, particularly at low doses and low dose rates, it is usually assumed that the frequency of their occurrence is linear with dose and without threshold (linear no-threshold hypothesis). "
"The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates radionuclides in drinking water to protect public health. Radionuclides may cause health problems if present in public or private water supplies in amounts greater than the drinking water standard set by EPA."
"Radiation may exist in drinking water from nuclides dissolved in the water from natural sources in the earth or occasionally from releases from laboratories or nuclear power plants.(1)"
- What are radionuclides?
- Uses for radionuclides.
- What are radionuclides’ health effects?
- What are EPA’s drinking water regulations for radionuclides?
- How do radionuclides get into my drinking water?
- How will I know if radionuclides are in my drinking water?
- How will radionuclides be removed from my drinking water?
- How do I learn more about my drinking water?
(1) Radiation: Risks and Realities. Understanding Radiation in Your Life, Your World (PDF)
Fukushima Daiichi Cs 137 dispersion model from NOAA
Published on 30 Aug 2013
The simulation from NOAA's HYSPLIT model shows a continuous release of tracer particles at a rate of 100 per hour representing the Cesium-137 emitted from Fukushima Daiichi. Each change in particle color (red, orange, yellow, cyan, green, blue, violet, magenta) represents a decrease in radioactivity by a factor of 10. Radioactivity decreases only due to wet and dry deposition. Decay is not a factor for Cesium in this short duration simulation compared to its long-half life. The air concentration would be computed from the particle density so it is only partially related to the color scale. Emissions occurred from 12-31 March, but the particles are followed through the end of April using meteorological data from the 1-degree resolution NOAA global analyses. The maximum cesium emissions on March 15th are shown by the red color and represent a particle activity of 5E+12 Bq.
More information about how this modeling was done can be found at: http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/global/tracers/pdf/JCOMM_poster_2012_d2.pdf
EPA: How will radionuclides be removed from my drinking water?
"The following treatment method(s) have proven to be effective in removing radionuclides at levels below their MCLs:
- Beta particle and Photon Radiation: ion exchange and reverse osmosis;
- (Gross) Alpha Emitters: reverse osmosis;
- Radium 226 and Radium 228 (Combined): ion exchange, reverse osmosis, lime softening;
- Uranium: Ion exchange, reverse osmosis, lime softening, coagulation/filtration."
"2 Pure H2O" Vita Tech System
"The radioactive elements get flushed down the drain and
do NOT stay in the R.O. membrane."
Michael S. Epstein, Danny G. Miles, Jr., and Lee L. Yu, "What Were They Drinking? A Critical Study of the Radium Ore Revigator," Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 1406-1409 (2009) https://www.osapublishing.org/as/abstract.cfm?URI=as-63-12-1406
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